Various devices connected and communicating with each other and systems using the internet is the Internet of Things (IOT). Not only mobile, computers and TVs but also all kinds of devices like fridge, fan, car dashboard, industrial machines, transportation and logistics, thermometer and dialysis devices all can be connected to the internet. The use of sensors, cloud data and applications, machines communicate with users and each other and can also perform manual or pre-programmed instructions and tasks. A simple example is when you are in your car and can turn on AC and lights at home. The camera and security system recognizes you and gives access to digital locks at home. In industry, it can mean the workshop supervisor and control room being alerted about the failure of a part of a machine. Applications can range from home automation, travel and logistics, industrial use, plant monitoring, agriculture and more.

Major elements of IOT system integration.

  • Sensors and devices collect data, for example, a proximity sensor will sense if an object is coming in the way of a car or a robot so that it stops or pauses. Thermal sensors can report temperature and humidity sensors can tell how moist air. Camera, accelerometer and GPS are few other examples.
  • Connectivity to share the data with other devices or people we need to gather and analyze it then create end-user understandable messages over a programmed application. Connectivity to the internet enables us to makes data transfer and access possible.
  • Gateways convert the raw data from sensors to formatted data which cloud applications can understand. They may also compress the size of data to be passed to the cloud. Gateways also secures the data by protecting the system from unauthorized access and cyberattacks.
  • The cloud ecosystem binds all components together over the internet, right from gateways through which data is received to actuators to users and their devices. These are often referred as IOT platforms. Depending on the input and data, the information will be processed and passed on to the user as well other devices.
  • User Interface is nothing but messages or apps that users have that show them status, action and information. Through this web, cloud server info can be passed to the user. Users may interact with the system using a phone, smartwatch or computer, or connected wearable.

In revenue terms, IOT market in 2019 was worth $465 billion and is expected to grow to $1.5 trillion in 2030. Services, software, cloud, and apps including connectivity, will account for 66 percent of spending on IOT, with the remaining accounting for hardware, in the form of dedicated IOT devices, modules, and gateways. According to IOT forecast, the number of businesses that use IOT technologies has increased from 13 percent in 2014 to about 25 percent today. Worldwide, the number of IOT-connected devices is projected to increase to 43 billion by 2023, an almost threefold increase from 2018. It is an industrial revolution just like electricity in 1914 and onwards where electricity is now the internet in every device out there. With faster cloud- computing power and the advent of 5G, our homes and businesses will see a huge change.